Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Computer Engineering, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Computer Engineering, Astaneh Ashrafieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astaneh Ashrafieh, Iran

3 Department of Electrical Engineering, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran



The authentication of writers through handwritten text stands as a biometric technique with considerable practical importance in the field of document forensics and literary history. The verification process involves a meticulous examination of the questioned handwriting in comparison to the genuine handwriting of a known writer, aiming to determine whether a shared authorship exists. In real-world scenarios, writer verification based on the handwritten text presents more challenges compared to signatures. Signatures typically consist of fixed designs chosen by signers, whereas textual content can vary and encompass a diverse set of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. Moreover, verifying a writer based on limited handwritten texts, such as a single word, is recognized as one of the open and challenging aspects of authentication. In this paper, we propose a customized Siamese Convolutional Neural Network (cSCNN) for offline writer verification based on the handwritten words. Additionally, to achieve more accurate discrimination between the handwriting styles of different writers, a combined loss function is employed. The designed model is trained with pairs of images, each comprising one authentic and one questioned handwritten word. The effectiveness of the proposed model is substantiated through experimental results obtained from two well-known datasets in both English and Arabic, IAM and IFN/ENIT. These results underscore the efficiency and performance of our model across diverse linguistic contexts.


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